Featured Post

Wake up Now ! جاگو ، جاگو ، جاگو

Wake up Pakistan ! Presently the Muslim societies are in a state of ideological confusion and flux. Materialism, terrorism,...

Friday, May 3, 2013

Caliphate, Khilafat & Quran




The Caliph hold temporal and sometimes a degree of spiritual authority, the empire of the Caliphate grew rapidly through conquest during its first two centuries to include most of Southwest Asia, North Africa, and Spain. Many Muslims desire to revive this concept to reagian lost glory. Details at: "Shari'ah, Democracy, Khilafah - Conflict or Compatible". 

DEMOCRACY - Javed Ahmed Ghamidi vs Hassan Nisar and Aorya Debate: http://t.co/GR3cblCSAY

------------------------------------


The different words used in Quran for ruler are: khalīfat (خَلِيفَة), sul'ṭān (سُلْطَٰن), King   الْمَلِكُ , amri الْأَمْرِ  . Each explained here: 



khā lām fā (خ ل ف)

The triliteral root khā lām fā (خ ل ف) occurs 127 times in the Quran, in 18 derived forms: (See Source for full details)
  • five times as the form I verb khalafa (خَلَفَ)
  • once as the form II verb khullifu (خُلِّفُ)
  • twice as the form III verb yukhālifu (يُخَالِفُ)
  • 14 times as the form IV verb akhlafu (أَخْلَفُ)
  • once as the form V verb yatakhallafu (يَتَخَلَّفُ)
  • 35 times as the form VIII verb ikh'talafa (ٱخْتَلَفَ)
  • five times as the form X verb is'takhlafa (ٱسْتَخْلَفَ)
  • six times as the noun khilāf (خِلَٰف)
  • 22 times as the nominal khalf (خَلْف)
  • once as the noun khil'fat (خِلْفَة)
  • nine times as the noun khalīfat (خَلِيفَة)
  • twice as the noun khawālif (خَوَالِف)
  • once as the active participle khālifīn (خَٰلِفِين)
  • four times as the form II passive participle mukhallafūn (مُخَلَّفُون)
  • once as the form IV active participle mukh'lif (مُخْلِف)
  • seven times as the form VIII verbal noun ikh'tilāf (ٱخْتِلَٰف)
  • 10 times as the form VIII active participle mukh'talif (مُّخْتَلِف)
  • once as the form X passive participle mus'takhlafīn (مُّسْتَخْلَفِين)

  1. Verb (form I) - to succeed, to come after
  2. Verb (form II) - to leave behind
  3. Verb (form III) - to oppose, to differ
  4. Verb (form IV) - to break, to fail
  5. Verb (form V) - to remain behind
  6. Verb (form VIII) - to differ
  7. Verb (form X) - to grant succession
Verb (form I) - to succeed, to come after

(7:142:16) ukh'luf'nī ----- Take my place

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَخِيهِ هَارُونَ اخْلُفْنِي فِي قَوْمِي وَأَصْلِحْ

(7:150:10) khalaftumūnī ----- you have done in my place

وَلَمَّا رَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا قَالَ بِئْسَمَا خَلَفْتُمُونِي مِنْ بَعْدِي

(7:169:1) fakhalafa ------ Then succeeded

فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُوا الْكِتَابَ

(19:59:1) fakhalafa ---- Then succeeded

فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ

(43:60:8) yakhlufūna ---- succeeding

وَلَوْ نَشَاءُ لَجَعَلْنَا مِنْكُمْ مَلَائِكَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ يَخْلُفُونَ

Verb (form II) - to leave behind

(9:118:4) khullifū ---- were left behind

وَعَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ الَّذِينَ خُلِّفُوا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ

Verb (form III) -----  to oppose, to differ

Verb (form IV) - ----- to break, to fail

Verb (form V) - ---- to remain behind

(9:120:10) yatakhallafū ----- they remain behind

مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُمْ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ أَنْ يَتَخَلَّفُوا عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

Verb (form VIII) - ------ to differc

[http://corpus.quran.com/qurandictionary.jsp?q=xlf ]

Verb (form X) - to grant succession

(6:133:8) wayastakhlif ---- and grant succession

إِنْ يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِنْ بَعْدِكُمْ مَا يَشَاءُ

(7:129:17) wayastakhlifakum ---- and make you successors

قَالَ عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَنْ يُهْلِكَ عَدُوَّكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ

(11:57:9) wayastakhlifu  ----- And my Lord will give succession

وَيَسْتَخْلِفُ رَبِّي قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّونَهُ شَيْئًا

(24:55:8) layastakhlifannahum ---- surely He will grant them succession

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ

(24:55:12) is'takhlafa He gave succession

لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ

Noun

(9:81:4) khilāfa ---- behind

فَرِحَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ بِمَقْعَدِهِمْ خِلَافَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

(17:76:11) khilāfaka ----- after you

وَإِذًا لَا يَلْبَثُونَ خِلَافَكَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Nominal

(1) Noun

(3:170:13) khalfihim ----- (but are) left behind

وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ

(4:9:6) khalfihim ----- behind

وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَافًا خَافُوا عَلَيْهِمْ

(7:17:7) khalfihim ----- behind them

ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَنْ شَمَائِلِهِمْ

(7:169:4) khalfun ----- successors

فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ وَرِثُوا الْكِتَابَ يَأْخُذُونَ عَرَضَ هَٰذَا الْأَدْنَىٰ

(10:92:6) khalfaka ----- succeed you

فَالْيَوْمَ نُنَجِّيكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُونَ لِمَنْ خَلْفَكَ آيَةً

(13:11:7) khalfihi ----- and behind him

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ

(19:59:4) khalfun ----- successors

فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ

(21:28:6) khalfahum ---- (is) behind them

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ

(22:76:6) khalfahum ----- (is) after them

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ

(34:9:8) khalfahum ----- (is) behind them

أَفَلَمْ يَرَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ

(36:9:7) khalfihim ----- and behind them

وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ سَدًّا وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ سَدًّا فَأَغْشَيْنَاهُمْ

(36:45:9) khalfakum ----- (is) behind you

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّقُوا مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَمَا خَلْفَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

(41:14:8) khalfihim  ----- behind them

إِذْ جَاءَتْهُمُ الرُّسُلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا اللَّهَ

(41:25:10) khalfahum ----- (was) behind them

وَقَيَّضْنَا لَهُمْ قُرَنَاءَ فَزَيَّنُوا لَهُمْ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ

(41:42:9) khalfihi ----- behind it

لَا يَأْتِيهِ الْبَاطِلُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ

(46:21:15) khalfihi ----  and after him

وَقَدْ خَلَتِ النُّذُرُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ

(72:27:12) khalfihi ----- behind him

إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ مِنْ رَسُولٍ فَإِنَّهُ يَسْلُكُ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ رَصَدًا

(2) Location adverb

(2:66:7) khalfahā ----- after them

فَجَعَلْنَاهَا نَكَالًا لِمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

(2:255:32) khalfahum ---- (is) behind them

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ

(8:57:8) khalfahum ---- (are) behind them

فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْحَرْبِ فَشَرِّدْ بِهِمْ مَنْ خَلْفَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ

(19:64:11) khalfanā  ----- (is) behind us

لَهُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَمَا خَلْفَنَا وَمَا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ

(20:110:6) khalfahum ---- (is) behind them

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

Noun

(25:62:6) khil'fatan ----  (in) succession

وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ خِلْفَةً لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَذَّكَّرَ أَوْ أَرَادَ شُكُورًا

Noun

(2:30:9) khalīfatan --- a vicegerent

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً

(6:165:4) khalāifa  --- successors

وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ

(7:69:14) khulafāa ----- successors

وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِنْ بَعْدِ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ

(7:74:4) khulafāa ----- successors

وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ جَعَلَكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ مِنْ بَعْدِ عَادٍ وَبَوَّأَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ

(10:14:3) khalāifa ------ successors

ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ لِنَنْظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ

(10:73:8) khalāifa ----- successors

وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ خَلَائِفَ وَأَغْرَقْنَا الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا

(27:62:9) khulafāa ------ inheritors

أَمَّنْ يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْضِ

(35:39:4) khalāifa ----- successors

هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ

(38:26:4) khalīfatan ---- a vicegerent

يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ

Noun

(9:87:5) l-khawālifi those --- who stay behind

Passive participle (form II)

Active participle (form IV)

(14:47:4) mukh'lifa  - will fail

Verbal noun (form VIII)

(2:164:6) wa-ikh'tilāfi and alternation

Active participle (form VIII)

(6:141:10) mukh'talifan diverse

Passive participle (form X)

(57:7:7) mus'takhlafīna --- trustees

وَأَنْفِقُوا مِمَّا جَعَلَكُمْ 

-------------------------------------
sul'ṭān (سُلْطَٰن)

The triliteral root sīn lām ṭā (س ل ط) occurs 39 times in the Quran, in two derived forms:
  • twice as the form II verb sallaṭa (سَلَّطَ)
  • 37 times as the noun sul'ṭān (سُلْطَٰن)
Details at: http://corpus.quran.com/qurandictionary.jsp?q=slT
-------------------------------------
King   الْمَلِكُ
King is used on Quran at 12 places : http://corpus.quran.com/search.jsp?q=king
بادشاہت کے حق میں دلیل :

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا ۚ قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّ  اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ ۖ وَاللَّـهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ ﴿٢٤٧

 اُن کے نبی نے ان سے کہا کہ اللہ نے طالوت کو تمہارے لیے بادشاہ مقرر کیا ہے یہ سن کر وہ بولے : "ہم پر بادشاہ بننے کا وہ کیسے حقدار ہو گیا؟ اُس کے مقابلے میں بادشاہی کے ہم زیادہ مستحق ہیں وہ تو کوئی بڑا ما ل دار آدمی نہیں ہے" نبی نے جواب دیا: "اللہ نے تمہارے مقابلے میں اسی کو منتخب کیا ہے اور اس کو دماغی و جسمانی دونوں قسم کی اہلیتیں فراوانی کے ساتھ عطا فرمائی ہیں اور اللہ کو اختیار ہے کہ اپنا ملک جسے چاہے دے، اللہ بڑی وسعت رکھتا ہے اور سب کچھ اُس کے علم میں ہے"[سورة البقرة: 2 :247]

Argument in favour of Kingship:

"Their Prophet said unto them: Lo! Allah hath raised up Saul to be a king for you. They said: How can he have kingdom over us when we are more deserving of the kingdom than he is, since he hath not been given wealth enough? He said: Lo! Allah hath chosen him above you, and hath increased him abundantly in wisdom and stature. Allah bestoweth His Sovereignty on whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing."(Quran;2:247)

In the Bible he [Talut] is called Saul. He was a thirty-year-old Benjaminite youth. 'There was not a man among the people of Israel more handsome than he; from his shoulders upward he was taller than any of the people' (1 Samuel 9: 2). He went out in search of the lost asses of his father. During this search, he passed through the house of Samuel and God informed Samuel that this was the person who had been chosen to govern the people of Israel. Samuel brought Saul to his house, took a vial of oil, poured it on his head,. kissed him and said: 'Has not the Lord anointed you to be the prince over His people of Israel? ' (1 Samuel 10: 1). Samuel later called the people of Israel together and proclaimed Saul to be their king (1 Samuel 10: 17). 

-----------------------------
amri الْأَمْرِ

(4:59:9) amri (having) --- authority
أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ

(4:83:16) amri ---- (having) authority
وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنْبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ
(9:112:7) l-āmirūna those who enjoin
الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ